A single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice structure, forming a 2D material with exceptional mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. It is widely studied for its potential use in fields such as electronics, energy storage, and biomedicine. Graphene is not only the thinnest, but also one of the strongest materials; it conducts heat better than all other materials; it is an excellent conductor of electricity; it is optically transparent, yet so dense that it is impermeable to gases.