The integration of physical and digital security features into a track and trace system to ensure that illicit traders are not able to, for instance, generate their own, functioning, unique identifying codes, nor copy existing codes, nor access confidential information contained in or linked to those codes. The difference between commercial parcel tracking systems and systems used for government-regulated products such as cigarettes, is one of security. Parcel tracking systems are at less risk of being manipulated by parties within the distribution chain than systems used to track cigarettes and other products exposed to illicit trade.